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The Liberal Celebration was one of the 2 major political celebrations in the UK with the opposing Conservative Celebration in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The celebration emerged from an alliance of Whigs and open market- supporting Peelites and the reformist Radicals in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone.
Under prime ministers Henry Campbell-Bannerman (19051908) and H. H. Asquith (19081916), the Liberal Celebration passed the welfare reforms that created a standard British welfare state. Although Asquith was the celebration’s leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime function of union prime minister and Lloyd George replaced him as prime minister in late 1916, but Asquith stayed as Liberal Celebration leader.
In The Oxford Companion to British History, historian Martin Pugh argues: Lloyd George made a greater effect on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain’s social welfare system (particularly medical insurance coverage, joblessness insurance coverage, and old-age pensions, mostly paid for by taxes on high incomes and on the land).
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The federal government of Lloyd George was controlled by the Conservative Celebration, which finally deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Celebration had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives’ main rival. The Liberal Celebration went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no greater than six seats at basic elections.
At the 1983 basic election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but just 23 of the 650 seats it objected to. At the 1987 basic election, its share of the vote fell listed below 23% and the Liberals and Social Democratic Celebration combined in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
Prominent intellectuals connected with the Liberal Celebration consist of the thinker John Stuart Mill, the financial expert John Maynard Keynes and social coordinator William Beveridge. The Liberal Celebration grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an noble faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals.
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Although their intentions in this were originally to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs gradually pertained to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake. The excellent figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox (died 1806) and his disciple and follower Earl Grey. After years in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832.
The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led eventually to the advancement of a methodical middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for numerous years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the celebration. In the years after Grey’s retirement, the celebration was led first by Lord Melbourne, a relatively conventional Whig, and then by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, and by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and basically a conservative, although efficient in radical gestures.
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The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the production towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act. They favoured social reform, individual liberty, lowering the powers of the Crown and the Church of England (numerous Liberals were Nonconformists), avoidance of war and foreign alliances (which were bad for business) and above all open market.
In 1841, the Liberals lost workplace to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was brief due to the fact that the Conservatives divided over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; and a faction understood as the Peelites (but not Peel himself, who died right after) defected to the Liberal side.
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A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, who was a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments. The official structure of the Liberal Celebration is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston’s 2nd federal government. Nevertheless, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a real modern-day political celebration while it was controlled by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the “2 Awful Old Male”, Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern-day Liberal Celebration.
After a quick Conservative federal government (during which the Second Reform Act was gone by contract in between the celebrations), Gladstone won a substantial victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal federal government. The establishment of the celebration as a national subscription organisation included the structure of the National Liberal Federation in 1877.
For the next thirty years Gladstone and Liberalism were associated. William Ewart Gladstone worked as prime minister four times (186874, 188085, 1886, and 189294). His monetary policies, based upon the idea of balanced budgets, low taxes and, were suited to an establishing capitalist society, but they could not react successfully as economic and social conditions changed.
Deeply religious, Gladstone brought a new moral tone to politics, with his evangelical sensibility and his opposition to upper class. His moralism frequently angered his upper-class challengers (consisting of Queen Victoria), and his heavy-handed control divided the Liberal Celebration. In diplomacy, Gladstone was in basic against foreign entanglements, but he did not withstand the truths of imperialism.
His goal was to create a European order based upon co-operation rather than conflict and on mutual trust instead of rivalry and suspicion; the rule of law was to supplant the reign of force and self-interest. This Gladstonian concept of an unified Show of Europe was opposed to and eventually beat by a Bismarckian system of controlled alliances and antagonisms.